Clean Drinking Water at Dholi Ghati

Badgaon block (or administrative district) is one of the closest to Udaipur of the rural areas in which Seva Mandir works. Many of its villages can be reached by taking the main highway which runs east–west just north of Bedla village on Udaipur’s northern outskirts and heading west for 20 kilometres or so before branching off left to pass between fields bordered by dry stone walls. The countryside is hilly as this area nestles in the Aravalli hills which continue their ancient journey in a southwesterly direction towards Gujarat. Today, we are not going so far. Kotra, one of the farthest of Seva Mandir’s blocks from Udaipur, lies some 150 kilometres further out and borders on Gujarat, but our destination, the hamlet of Dholi Ghati, one of three hamlets near the village of Jogiyon-ka-Guda, is only a few kilometres from the highway.

Representatives of Seva Mandir’s Natural Resource Development (NRD) team are to hold a meeting with the inhabitants of Dholi Ghati to discuss the new water tank which has been built in their hamlet with Seva Mandir’s support to provide clean drinking water. The meeting, which will discuss how the local inhabitants will undertake, and contribute financially to, the maintenance of the tank, will be followed by a practical training session on chlorinating the water in the tank which holds 4,000 litres.

The new tank is part of a larger project started in December 2013 to support the three hamlets of Jogiyon-ka-Guda through the construction of three new water tanks fed by existing wells, the restoration of these three wells and the repair of a government-constructed water tank. A number of village meetings were held to assess the clean drinking water needs in three hamlets and to discuss the contribution to be made by the local people to the creation of these community assets. In line with Seva Mandir’s normal practice, 10 – 20% of the overall cost of the project should be borne by the local community contributing either in cash or kind. In this case, the local community contributed the stone to construct the tank and the labour as well as a small amount in cash paid into the village fund (the Gram Vikas Kosh).

The Seva Mandir team of Himmat, Victoria, Bhupendra and Mohan is accompanied by two volunteers.  The team has kindly agreed to collect me en route to the highway via Bedla.   Once underway, the first stop is for delicious chai and nibbles in Gogunda, which is no more than three-quarters of a cross-roads but bustling with life, to provide sustenance before we start the meeting and training. This is an NRD tradition and one which should most definitely be continued!

On arriving at Dholi Ghati, we are warmly welcomed by a number of local people who start to spread a large mat, partly in the shade of the beautiful neem tree, which will be the venue for the meeting. While this is happening, I visit the small balwadi, a preschool day centre for children up to the age of five, which is only a few metres away. The sanchalika (nursery teacher) and her young assistant are giving the toddlers their early lunch. The youngsters seem to be on good form — they have certainly eaten up well, judging by how little is left on their plates!

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The balwadis, in this and many other communities, were started by Seva Mandir and continue to be funded in part through donations raised by it from mainly international donors but with the local community contributing as it can. The balwadis provide preschool facilities which prepare the children either for attendance at a government school or, where there is no functioning government school, possibly at one of Seva Mandir’s own bridge schools or shiksha kendras.  Notwithstanding that the government has a statutory obligation to provide schooling for all children, more often than not in the rural areas there is no government school within reach of the village or, if there is one, no teacher who has been appointed to the school or, if there is both a school and an appointed teacher, the teacher is never or rarely there: on average, teacher absenteeism in government schools in theses rural areas is as high as 80%. In these cases, the Seva Mandir shiksha kendras provide essential education while villagers, again with Seva Mandir’s support, lobby for their rights to government education.

Outside in the warm sunlight, the locals begin to congregate and take their places on the mat. There is obviously a good relationship with the NRD team with whom they exchange news while waiting for others to arrive. The women are colourfully dressed and sit together partly in the sunshine (it is the beginning of winter after all!) whilst the NRD team and the volunteers find places in the shade.

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These meetings are always a challenge for the photographer, with bright light and dark shadows testing the camera’s ‘dynamic range’ (the spectrum from dark to light tones in the image which the digital sensor can record) and therefore the technical exposure skills of the photographer. The women ask Victoria why I am taking so many photographs and this is the reason. Diplomatically, however, Victoria does not explain that the photographer is ‘technically challenged’ but indicates that it is good to have a good number of images from which to make a selection for various Seva Mandir publications! The women are intrigued but satisfied.

The meeting starts and the first topic on the agenda is the new water tank. It is necessary to decide which members of the local community will take responsibility for cleaning the tank and also how much each household will contribute to a small fund to pay for maintenance and eventually repairs. There are both men and women from the hamlet present but it is striking that it is the women who take the initiative, led by the woman president of the Gram Samuh or local residents’ committee. This woman is a jolly soul with a big smile and obvious sense of humour. With one other woman seated close to her, she volunteers to take responsibility for cleaning and maintenance.

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The setting up of village committees which are inclusive, in particular, of women has been at the very core of Seva Mandir’s approach to development in southern Rajasthan for nearly half a century. Overcoming traditional divisions and prejudices in the local communities, whether based on gender, caste or age, and building consensus has been a vital component of securing the commitment of local people to the projects on which Seva Mandir has worked with the communities, be they setting up a balwadi and remunerating the sanchalika and, if there is one, her assistant; training traditional birth assistants who support pregnant women or bal sakhis who provide postnatal medical advice and support for mothers, their babies and young children; building a small dam (anicut) to help collect monsoon rainwater for irrigation; recovering and protecting common pastureland; building Ecosan or traditional wet toilets; or any of the other essential facilities which we take for granted in the so-called developed world. Without local residents accepting ‘ownership’ of the projects, the projects will not be successful. One of Seva Mandir’s strengths, born of years of constructive collaboration with the communities with which it works, is a bond with the local people and an understanding of the village institutions which they have established. This bond and understanding, so clearly evident in the excellent relationship which Himmat, Victoria and the two locally based or zonal members of the team, Bhupendra and Mohan, have with our hosts and the manner in which the meeting is conducted reflect mutual respect and shared experiences, but also Seva Mandir’s deep insights into the dynamics of village life which account for its ability to communicate meaningfully with the community and to advise and support in a constructive way. This long-term relationship is at the heart of the ‘democratic and participatory development’ fostered by Seva Mandir, which is typified by the meeting I am privileged to attend.

The meeting also agrees the sum that each household will contribute to the maintenance and repair fund before moving onto the next topic, the provision of Ecosan toilets.

It may seem remarkable to westerners visiting rural India, but many country folk here still have no toilet in or close to their homes and use the open fields. It is a cliché, but nonetheless true, that there are more mobile phones in India than toilets. Seva Mandir has worked with local communities to explain the benefits of installing a toilet: there is the security aspect for women and girls who are vulnerable to assault when visiting the fields, particularly before sunrise and after dark; there is a health aspect in the provision of proper sanitation: and, in the case of Ecosan toilets, an agricultural benefit. The Ecosan toilet works on the principle that urine and dry matter are kept separate. The dry matter is kept in a pit below the toilet, treated with sand or ash, and turns to odourless organic manure which is then used on the fields or small garden allotments in which the villagers grow a few vegetables and even fruit around their homes.

The woman president of the Gram Samuh explains that the villagers have seen examples of both the Ecosan toilets which Seva Mandir has helped build and government-built models. She is most definite that she prefers those built with Seva Mandir’s support. Victoria asks why. Well, the president replies, ‘I am not as slender as some of the women and I cannot fit into those government toilets!’ That settles it!   A new project for the NRD team in Dholi Ghati!

This important issue decided, the meeting breaks up and we walk to the new water tank, pristinely painted, where Himmat first explains the importance of chlorination

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before practical instruction is given on measuring the chlorine and mixing it well with the correct volume of water before the solution is poured into the 4,000-litre water tank. The president is nothing if not hands-on and steps forward to receive the training. She is shown how best to measure the chlorine before mixing it thoroughly in the water by pouring the solution from one bucket to another and repeating the process several times as the other women, a few children and the men look on admiringly.

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Ethel, one of the volunteers, remarks perceptively that there are in fact, apart from the toddlers in the balwadi who are now having a post lunch nap, very few children of school-going age in attendance. This is a good sign since it means that the local children are indeed in school!

Once the chlorine solution is well mixed, a local youth takes the bucket and scales the brand new ladder propped against the tank. The ladder is painted bright green and stands out against the freshly painted yellow walls of the tank. He pours the solution into the tank through an opening in the roof which he then closes again.

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Back at ground level, the locals gather in front of their clean water tank for the photographer. There are obviously immensely pleased and proud, as they should be.

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While waiting for the chlorine solution to mix with the water in the tank, the women ask Victoria about the colour of the hair of the other volunteer, Therese, who is a tall and striking Swedish girl with long blonde hair tied in a pony tail down her back. Victoria explains that the blonde hair and the fair skin go together and that it is natural. Some of the women tentatively stretch out a hand and stroke it with intrigue and delight. It appears that the women have also asked why the photographer has silver grey in his hair. Victoria, usually so diplomatic, responds candidly: ‘Oh, he’s just old!’ So, not just technically challenged but ancient too!

It is not clear whether sufficient time has passed for the chlorination process to be completed, but the women have waited long enough and one walks confidently over to the taps at the side of the tank with a drinking jug which she fills and then returns to offer water to her colleagues.

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There is much tasting and conferring as if sampling a beaujolais nouveau: yes, soft and delicious! The clean drinking water project is up and running!

As we wait for our vehicle to take us back to town, our hosts offer chai, not just one but several cups, which is most welcome. I reflect on the privilege of witnessing the fruits of Seva Mandir’s hard work and the dedication of its team members in leading this clean water project to a successful conclusion, and the evidence of strong local women taking responsibility for this new facility — perhaps only a small step along the road to empowerment, but an important one. All in all, an enlightening and uplifting experience!

My thanks to the wonderful Seva Mandir team!

From the Monsoon Palace

We have been visiting Udaipur for over ten  years but, until this week, had never visited the Monsoon Palace, formerly the Sajjan Garh Palace.  The locals tell you, quite rightly, that it is good to visit on a clear day when you can enjoy the views.  Along with warmer days, this last week has seen a return of clear blue skies after more hazy conditions earlier in January.  We witnessed a spectacular sunset a few evenings ago and resolved to make the trip up to the Monsoon Palace on the next clear afternoon.

Leaving the outskirts of the city to the south west, you drive up through the Sajjangargh wildlife sanctuary which is home to leopard and doubtless other rarely seen species like sambar, wild boar and jackals, but alas no tigers these days.  The tigers were much hunted in the countryside around Udaipur by the Maharanas and the local aristocracy.  There is a hunting tower which we can see on the hill behind the house in Bedla, north of Udaipur.  Bedla takes its name from the family which owned much of the land there before Independence and who clearly hunted where now houses are being erected.

The palace was constructed in the late 19th century by Maharana Sajjan Singh, the 72nd ruler of the Mewar Dynasty, as a place from which to watch the monsoon clouds .  Made famous by the James Bond film, Octopussy, it is rather less glamorous than you might expect, but no matter: location is everything.

Nothing quite prepared us for the wonderful 360 panoramas from this, the highest point in and around Udaipur.  The first view is to the east across the Aravalli Hills which cradle Udaipur.  Lake Pichola, one of the five lakes in Udaipur and perhaps the best known, can be seen to the left of the image.

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The second and third views pan north east and  capture more of the the city which has grown around Lake Pichola and between it and Lake Fateh Sagar.

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The City Palace sits regally on the north eastern shore of Lake Pichola and looks out across the lake to Jag Niwas, once the royal summer retreat and now the Taj Lake Palace Hotel.  Both are wonderfully located to capture the setting sun across the initially lower farmland to the south west on the far side of the lake, before the Aravalli Hills, rising steeply, close the circle of the natural fortress which protects the city.

The next view, coming further round to the north, shows Lake Fateh Sagar on the left and Lake Pichola on the right.

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Looking due north between the hills below, we can see up to Bedla. The house is just hidden from view by the eastern slope of the hill to the left of centre, but we could clearly see the temple on the hill above the house and the hunting tower to which reference is made above.

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Turning toward the west, you return to countryside with hills and valleys.

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It was a cloudless sky with just a little late-afternoon haze by the time the sun started to set.  The spectacular sunset we had witnessed earlier in the week was the result of some scattered cloud low over the hills to the south west.  As the sun sank down behind them, its rays caught the clouds and were reflected back down. On the evening of our visit, the sun sank with a warm glow but no pyrotechnics.  We will watch out for the right conditions and scurry back up to capture an amazing sunset to share on another occasion.  For now, we were blown away by the panoramas, feeling uplifted and very privileged.

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I’ve been up early to finish the blog and have just pulled back the curtains in our small study to see the sun breaking over the hills to the east.  Another clear and bright day: perhaps one of those sunsets awaits!

Return to the Aravalli Hills

After three days in Delhi catching up with friends and contacts and attending to various administrative matters (most importantly securing Indian SIM cards for mobiles and a dongle for the laptops to connect to the internet), we started the journey south to Udaipur on Sunday.  It would be a long drive over a day-and-a-half, weaving between the once brightly painted Tata and Ashok Leyland lorries with “Blow Horn” and “Use Dipper at Night” on their tailgates.  You need a good driver in India.  The unexpected is the norm as we see a large bus heading north towards us on the semi-hard shoulder of the south-bound carriageway, followed by a tractor and trailer – not to mention the cows sleeping in the outside lane.  Maybe dodging and weaving describes the drive more accurately.

Leaving South Delhi and the well laid-out Paths of the diplomatic area, you soon see the high-rise buildings of Gurgaon, the new city suburb which is home to many international businesses and ex-pats.  We had spent the previous evening there with our friends Adrian and Helen, eating outside at a restaurant in their new apartment complex, complete with pool and gym.  The first part of the journey takes you over flat terrain with buildings of various descriptions lining the dual carriageway: shops, industrial areas, part-finished apartment blocks and vehicle repair workshops with worried looking drivers sitting on their haunches, elbows on knees and appearing to clutch their heads as mechanics lie on their backs under the vehicles searching for the problem.   The route is also peppered with lorries whose axles have broken, often tipping them into the roadside ditch from which a crane, which may have to come several hundred kilometers according to the signs at the toll booths, will be required to lift them. Eventually, there are fields which are green and fertile after the rains.

After six or so hours and a short stop for delicious, freshly cooked veg pakoras, there is a surge of excitement as the Aravalli hills become visible first to the right and then to the left.  The Aravalli hills, the oldest fold mountains in India, run northeast for about 800 km across the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan and then, as isolated hills and ridges, the states of Haryana and Delhi. The Aravalli hills surround us in all their glory at the house and are reassuringly welcoming, reminiscent of a camel train crossing the semi-arid landscape which is southern Rajasthan and our base for the next while.

At around 5 o’clock, we draw into a small heritage hotel for the night. Once the hunting lodge of the local royal family, it was converted to a hotel four years ago.  We are the only guests and are given the choice of his highness’ and her highness’ bedrooms on the first floor, reached by typically steep and turning stairs designed as a last line of defence, with sitting rooms, bathrooms and a veranda overlooking a small but tidy garden.  The correct and very polite senior man tells us that they have to water it as the rains have been poor and the water table is very far below the surface.  But the former lodge is surrounded by fields with lime, mango and guava trees and a variety of crops.  Having established that we had no plans for the rest of the afternoon, the senior man offers us a bullock cart ride to the local village to see the milking and visit local families.  We readily accept and arrange to start at half-past five.  We had chosen his highness’ rooms because they were, predictably, a little more spacious.  The plumbing seemed innovative as hot water responded to a pull on the handle and steam rose from the depths: a whole new slant on a hot flush.  We should have realized that this was not in fact standard procedure but hurried off to meet the bullock cart.

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The lodge is about a kilometer from the road and passes between fields planted with guar gum and dotted with neem and acacia trees.

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The village is a short distance on the other side of the road and we are soon greeted by lively women who invite us into their front yard where the cows, calves and buffaloes have been brought for the night.  We are too late for the milking but, camera in hand, John soon has the women and children, some very keen to have their photos taken but one little one appalled by the prospect, forming groups while exhorting them to smile.  Portrait photography is a challenge here: the subjects laugh and smile, flashing their beautiful white teeth, until the photographer raises the camera to his eye, at which point a studied seriousness descends on the faces.  We have seen this many times before.  Playing peek-a-boo from behind the camera and making funny faces usually does the trick but you have to be quick!  As soon as they see the camera approaching the eye, portrait mode is resumed.  The session is interrupted when one of the calves head-buts John firmly in the right buttock.  Now, that brings more smiles and hilarity to the proceedings: quick, aim and shoot while everyone is distracted!

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We move on to two other houses to witness evening activities: drawing water from the well and cooking supper.

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We meet, and exchange greetings with, a woman and then two young girls making chapattis.

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We are offered a taste by the girls.   Very good indeed!  Felicia says that we enjoy eating chapattis with chutney and vegetables.  They think we are asking them to offer us chutney and vegetables too.  Our bullock cart driver resolves the misunderstanding to their obvious relief.

It is getting dark and we head back for dinner set up outside by the new pool which is lit.  As we reach the reception room, the senior man anxiously explains that they have moved us to her highness’ rooms as there has been a flood in our bathroom.  Well, this was not an understatement: the steam was clearly the precursor of an exploding pipe and the formation of a small lake in the bathroom and adjoining room where we had left the luggage.  Fortunately, all the bags were dry except the one with John’s new laptop and various papers.  Why Felicia found the sight of John drying the equipment and spreading the papers while muttering in what sounded like rudimentary Hindi under his breath so amusing, one will never know.  Dinner was excellent and a well-earned G&T and glass of Sula sauvignon blanc prepared the way for a sound night’s sleep.

We were up at dawn and headed out with the bullock cart driver, this time on foot to walk through the fields.  There was early morning activity with women working watched by their children.  The out-buildings of the lodge were now storerooms for crops. We saw sesame plants drying so that the seeds would fall out with a gentle shake.  The bullock cart driver explained that they stored the crops until market prices were good.  Good old supply and demand.

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On checking out after breakfast the senior man announced that they had discussed the matter and decided that there should be no charge for dinner or drinks to compensate us for the “unnatural attack by water”.  They were very keen that we should be content with our stay which, we assured them, we were.  It was nevertheless clear that a decision had been taken, so we graciously accepted and said we would tell others and return ourselves.  (For those visiting the area, this is a true find: Bijay Niwas at Bijaynagar).

After another four hours on the road, guided all the way by the Aravalli hills, we arrived in Udaipur and went straight to the house where we met Manju, the caretaker’s wife, and two lovely children, Anita and Yuraj, three and one: Anita’s big brown eyes and blown kisses will break hearts; Yuraj is still not too sure about us, particularly John pretending to tickle him – plus ça change.  Manju was dressed in typically colourful, traditional Rajasthani attire with long head scarf with which she would gracefully cover her head to frame a beaming smile.  As yet, neither Manju nor Jagdish, her husband, whom we met the following day, speak any English and we speak no Hindi, but communication is about more than words (albeit that they do help).  Having dropped off some luggage, we headed to a small bed & breakfast in old Udaipur, reached on foot for the last few hundred yards up and down winding alleys, where we were greeted by Robin and Mary Thomas, whom we had met on our last trip.  Despite their names, Robin and Mary are Indians who were brought up in an area of northeast India formerly settled by Christian missionaries.  We would stay three nights there while we kitted out the house with essentials.  Dinner at the roof restaurant of the Jagat Niwas Palace hotel overlooking Lake Pichola, which is as full as we have ever seen it, blissfully rounded off the day.  We had arrived!  For several years a developing dream, and a year (almost to the day) in the planning.  Amazing!